The judicial system in Hungary is overseen by the following courts:
- the Supreme Court (the Curia);
- the High Courts of Justice;
- the Municipal Court of Budapest;
- the county courts: 20 in total;
- local and labor courts: 111 district courts.
Courts of first instance in Hungary are local courts having their seats located in major cities. The Municipal Court of Budapest and the county courts deal with lawsuits concerning: copyright and industrial patent protection, claims for compensation for damage, company registration procedures, violation of civil rights, property law (only in certain cases), public administrative cases and others.
Administrative and labor courts in Hungary
There are 20 administrative and labor courts in Hungary
. These courts deal with cases that concern administrative decisions and cases concerning employment relationships in Hungary. Twenty regional courts
are located throughout the country and one is located in Budapest (the Budapest-Capital Regional Court). The regional courts act in the cases defined by law concerning the Code of Civil Procedure
and Code of Criminal Procedure.
The Supreme Court in Hungary
According to Article 25 of the Fundamental Law, the Curia is the highest judicial authority in Hungary. It guarantees the correct application of law and its decisions are binding to other courts.
The Curia is composed of three departments:
Each department has various chambers and a department head presides over the department.
The Act on the Organization and Administration of the Courts sets out the main responsibilities of the Curia:
- to examine the appeals submitted against the decisions of the count and regional courts;
- to review the final decisions if they are challenged through an extraordinary remedy;
- to adopt decisions that are binding to other courts;
- to analyse final decisions regarding judicial practice;
- to publish decisions on principles;
- to carry out other duties as referred to by law.